Ƙwaƙwalwar EPROM: Ma’ana da halaye

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EPROM: Mai rikitarwa, shirye-shirye da kuma goge irin ƙwaƙwalwar.

Kana so ka sani menene membobin EPROM? Kun kasance a daidai wurin, saboda a nan za mu koya muku duk abin da kuke buƙatar sani game da shi, daga ma’anarsa zuwa halayensa da ƙari.

Bayani na EPROM

Kamar yadda muka sani, don kwamfuta don aiki yadda yakamata tana buƙatar nau'ikan ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya da yawa, amma kun sani menene membobin EPROM? Ci gaba da karantawa, saboda a cikin wannan labarin mai ban sha'awa da haɓaka za mu koya muku duk cikakkun bayanai game da shi.

Menene memba na EPROM?

Bisa manufa, don sani menene membobin EPROM, dole ne mu san cewa yanki ne na ROM. Don haka, muna da cewa EPROM, acronym for Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory, ba mai canzawa bane, mai shirye-shirye ne kuma mai gogewa.

Idan kuna son ƙarin cikakkun bayanai game da ma'anar ƙwaƙwalwar ROM, Ina gayyatar ku don karanta labarin da ake kira: ROM ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya: Ma’ana, aiki, halaye da ƙari.

Bugu da kari, an tsara shirin EPROM ta hanyar lantarki, bayan haka, ana iya share bayanan ta amfani da hasken ultraviolet. Na gaba, za mu ambaci wasu halaye waɗanda ke bambanta EPROM da sauran nau'ikan ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya.

Ayyukan

Kamar yadda muka ambata a sashe na baya akan menene membobin EPROM, wannan nau'in ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya ba mai canzawa bane. Don haka, za ta iya adana bayanan da aka adana na dogon lokaci; bugu da ,ari, yana ba shi damar karantawa ta hanya mara iyaka.

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Bugu da ƙari, irin wannan ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya ana karantawa kawai kuma ana iya sake tsara ta ta hanyar lantarki, wato ana adana bayanan har sai an sake yin rikodin ƙwaƙwalwar. Dangane da wannan, yana da mahimmanci a ambaci cewa don aiwatar da sake maimaita tsarin ba mu buƙatar cire ƙwaƙwalwar daga allon da'irar.

Bugu da ƙari, EPROM tana da girma dabam da kuma iyawa iri -iri; wanda kewayon daga 256 bytes zuwa 1 megabytes. A gefe guda, ƙwaƙwalwar ROM tana kunshe a cikin ɓangaren ma'adini mai haske, ta hanyar da hasken ultraviolet ke isa yayin aikin share bayanan.

Game da hanyar haɗa kayayyaki zuwa bas ɗin tsarin, asynchronous ne, wato, babu siginar agogo da ke sarrafa mahimman ayyukan ƙwaƙwalwar. Koyaya, wannan haɗin yana gudana ta hanyar mai sarrafawa ko adaftar ƙwaƙwalwa.

Shiryawa

Daga cikin bangarorin da ke taimaka mana mu fahimta menene memba na EPROM, dole ne mu ambaci yadda tsarinsa yake. Ta wannan hanyar, yana da mahimmanci a haskaka cewa don aiwatar da irin wannan tsari muna buƙatar, da farko, mai tsara shirye -shiryen EPROM.

Na biyu, muna buƙatar jerin abubuwan motsawar lantarki tare da ƙarfin ƙarfin lantarki tsakanin 10 zuwa 25 volts. Dangane da wannan, ana amfani da waɗannan ƙuƙwalwar akan pin na musamman na memba na EPROM, na kusan lokacin milimita 50.

Hakanan, yayin aiwatar da shirye -shiryen EPROM, muna buƙatar saita adireshin bayanan. Hakanan, dole ne mu tantance shigarwar bayanai.

A gefe guda kuma, EPROM ya ƙunshi tarin transistors waɗanda ke aiki azaman ƙwayoyin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya. Ta wannan hanyar, kowane transistor yana canza yanayin lokacin da ake amfani da ƙarfin lantarki a yayin aiwatar da shirye -shirye.

Dangane da wannan fage na ƙarshe, dole ne mu fayyace cewa farkon yanayin waɗannan transistors ɗin Kashe ne, daidai da alamar ma'ana daidai da 1. Daga baya, transistor ɗin yana kunnawa yana adana ƙima mai ma'ana daidai da 0.

Bugu da ƙari, ya zama dole a nanata cewa wannan gaskiyar ta yiwu ne saboda kasancewar ƙofa mai iyo a cikin kowane transistors. Don haka, cajin wutar lantarki ya kasance a cikin ƙofar na dogon lokaci, yana ba da damar adana abun cikin da aka yi rikodin har abada a cikin ƙwaƙwalwar EPROM.

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Ayyuka

Babban abin da dole ne mu ambata game da aikin memba na EPROM, shine cewa yana farawa ne kawai lokacin da muka yi rikodin abun ciki a ciki. Bayan haka, mataki na gaba shine shigar da naúrar a cikin tsarin, inda zai ci gaba da aiki azaman na'urar karatu ba wani abu ba.

Don haka, kafin sanya memba na EPROM cikin aiki, ya zama dole a canza yanayin farkon bayanan bayanan. A takaice dai, dole ne mu yi amfani da wutar lantarki zuwa gare su ta hanyar tashar transistor har sai mun isa ga kayan aikin semiconductor, don haifar da ƙofar sama don samun cajin mara kyau.

Baya ga abin da muka ambata a sama, dole ne mu fayyace cewa yana yiwuwa a cire memba na EPROM na allon da'irar inda aka sanya shi, haka nan kuma za mu iya canza abin da ke ciki idan muna buƙata. A zahiri, idan haka ne, hanyar tana da kyau kai tsaye, kamar yadda aka tattauna a ƙasa.

Amfani

Farawa daga gaskiyar cewa EPROM yanki ne na ƙwaƙwalwar ROM, muna da cewa babban amfanin sa shine sanya kwamfutar ta fara aiki. Kazalika da samar da albarkatun da ake buƙata don loda tsarin aiki da aikin abubuwan haɗin gwiwa.

A gefe guda, mafi girman aikace-aikacen wannan nau'in ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya yana faruwa a cikin tsarin sarrafa micro ko sarrafawa. Ta wannan hanyar, EPROM ya zama matsakaici inda zai yiwu a adana bayanai ta hanya madaidaiciya, kamar: tsarin aiki, aikace-aikacen kwamfuta, harsunan shirye-shirye da abubuwan yau da kullun.

Bugu da ƙari, ina gayyatar ku don kallon bidiyon da ke biye, inda zaku sami cikakkun bayanai game da aikace -aikacen karatu da rubuta ƙwaƙwalwar EPROM a cikin filin kera motoci.

Dangane da wannan, yana da mahimmanci a ambaci cewa abubuwan da muke magana a kai sun ƙunshi jerin rakodin bayanai da aka adana a cikin sel bayanai. Don haka, waɗannan sel sun ƙunshi transistors na cajin lantarki; waxanda ake sauke su daga kanti.

Erara

Dangane da gogewar memba na EPROM, abu na farko da za a ambata shi ne cewa ba za a iya yin shi a wani ɓangaren ba. Wato, da zarar mun yanke shawara, dole ne mu ci gaba da goge duk abubuwan da aka adana a ƙwaƙwalwar.

Don yin wannan, muna cire ƙwaƙwalwar EPROM daga tsarin kuma muna goge abun cikin kowane sel tare da hasken ultraviolet. Ta hanyar, yana wucewa ta taga ma'adini na ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya har sai ya isa yankin inda kayan ɗaukar hoto suke, kuma ta haka ne ya watsar da cajin da ke riƙe transistor ɗin.

Dangane da wannan, yana da mahimmanci a ambaci cewa tsarin da aka bayyana a sama yana haifar da kashe transistor, kuma ƙimar sa ta canza daga 0 zuwa 1. Bugu da ƙari, zamu iya haskaka cewa raƙuman hasken ultraviolet yana da kewayon 2537 Angstroms, da gaba ɗaya tsarin na iya ɗaukar tsakanin mintuna 10 zuwa 30, gwargwadon ƙarfin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya.

A ƙarshe, bayan goge bayanan da sabon shirye -shiryen sa, muna iya dawo da ƙwaƙwalwar ta EPROM zuwa asalin sa ko amfani da ita a wani aikace -aikacen da ke buƙatar ta. Koyaya, yana da mahimmanci a tuna cewa daga wannan lokacin wannan ƙwaƙwalwar tana aiki kawai azaman naúrar karatu kawai.

Dangane da wannan, a cikin bidiyon da ke tafe za ku ga yadda za a yi rikodin ƙwaƙwalwar EPROM, bayan goge abin da ke ciki.

Daban-daban

Tun lokacin haihuwar membobin EPROM, ƙirar su ta haɓaka. Don haka, a halin yanzu, mafi yawanci shine nemo na'urori waɗanda ke da ƙwayoyin adana bit, waɗanda za a iya saita bytes ɗin su daban -daban.

Dangane da wannan, rarraba waɗannan ƙwayoyin ƙwayoyin suna ɗaukar sunaye daban -daban, gwargwadon ƙirar da ƙwaƙwalwar ta kasance cikin dangin EPROM na jerin 2700. Ta wannan hanyar, muna da shirye -shiryen ciki waɗanda za a iya gano su kamar 2K x 8 da 8K x8 ku.

Dangane da na ƙarshen, alal misali, zamu iya cewa ƙungiyar cikin gida na tubalan ta yi daidai da EPROM na ƙirar 2764. Ta wannan hanyar, matrix ɗin da ke haɗa sel ɗin ajiya ba ya tsere wa dabaru da ke da alaƙa da canzawa da zaɓi, da sauransu. .

Bugu da ƙari, wannan ƙirar ƙwaƙwalwar ta EPROM tana da madaidaicin shimfidar tashoshi, tare da encapsulation 28-pin. Dangane da wannan, wannan nau'in encapsulation shine kawai aka sani da DIP, acronym for Dual In-line Package, kuma yana da yawa ga nau'in tsarin da ake kira JEDEC-28.

A gefe guda, akwai nau'ikan shirye -shiryen ƙwaƙwalwa na EPROM, musamman dangane da matakin ƙarfin lantarki da ake amfani da shi. Don haka, zamu iya samun wasu samfuran da ke aiki tare da ƙarfin ƙarfin 12,5 volts (v), 13v, 21v da 25v.

Dangane da wannan, yana da mahimmanci a ambaci cewa duk ya dogara da mai ƙira da sauran halayen da ke da alaƙa da kowane na'urorin ƙwaƙwalwar EPROM da ke samuwa a kasuwa. Hakanan, yana yiwuwa a sami salo daban -daban na rikodin bayanai, inda duka tsawon lokacin motsawar lantarki da matakan dabaru da ke da alaƙa da salon aiki suka bambanta.

Abvantbuwan amfãni da rashin amfani

Fa'idar farko da aka ambata game da ƙwaƙwalwar EPROM shine ikon sake amfani dashi sau da yawa kamar yadda ya cancanta. Don yin wannan, dole ne koyaushe mu tabbatar da goge abun ciki da yin rikodin sabo.

A gefe guda, ƙwaƙwalwar EPROM tana wakiltar wani muhimmin ci gaban fasaha, tunda yana ba mu damar gyara ko gyara bayanan da aka rubuta a ciki. Koyaya, wannan nau'in ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya shima yana da wasu rashi, daga cikinsu zamu iya ambaton waɗannan masu zuwa:

Tsarin rikodin abun ciki yana buƙatar na'urar musamman, wanda ake kira mai tsara shirye -shiryen EPROM. Hakanan, lokacin da muke son goge bayanan, muna fuskantar aiwatarwa a hankali, mai tsayi kuma mai rikitarwa, saboda a tsakanin sauran abubuwa dole ne mu cire memori daga allon da'irar.

A ƙarshe, tsarin share abun cikin baya ba da damar canza rabe -raben daban -daban, akasin haka, dole ne mu kawar da tarin bayanan. Koyaya, saboda wannan matsalar, tunanin EEPROM ya tashi.

Mai kwaikwayon ƙwaƙwalwa na EPROM

Ci gaban fasaha da za mu iya morewa a yau, ya kai mu ga yin magana game da wanzuwar emulators na EPROM. Ta hanyar da ya zama dole a kafa ma'ana da aiki iri ɗaya.

A ka’ida, emulator na memba na EPROM na’ura ce da aka ƙera don haɗin gwiwa tare da haɓaka hanyoyin sarrafa microcontroller ko microprocessors, tare da shirin saka idanu. Ta wannan hanyar, mai kwaikwayon irin wannan yana ɗaukar sifar ƙwaƙwalwar RAM tare da tashoshin jiragen ruwa guda biyu, ɗayan ɗayan yana kula da halayen ƙirar EPROM ɗayan kuma yana aiki azaman tashar don ɗaukar jigilar bayanai zuwa ƙwaƙwalwar RAM ɗin.

Dangane da wannan, zamu iya ambaton na'urar da kamfanin AMD ya haɓaka, wanda ya ƙunshi ƙwaƙwalwar Flash EPROM. Bugu da ƙari, muna da cewa yana da ƙarfin ƙarfin ƙarfin shirye -shirye na 5 volts kuma yana ba da damar sake tsara ƙwaƙwalwar har zuwa sau 100000.

Hakanan, wannan na'urar tana da ikon yin aiki azaman mai kwaikwayo tare da babban ƙarfin ajiya kuma, a lokaci guda, azaman mai tsara shirye -shiryen ƙwaƙwalwar Flash na EPROM. Don haka, da zarar naúrar ta cika aikinta na shirye -shirye, za mu iya cire lambar ƙarshe daga mai kwaikwayon kuma saka ta a kan allon da'irar, bayan haka na'urar ta ce za ta ci gaba da nuna hali azaman ƙwaƙwalwar EPROM.

Bambance -bambance tsakanin ƙwaƙwalwar EPROM da ƙwaƙwalwar Flash EPROM

Da farko, kamar yadda muka ambata a baya, memba na Flash EPROM yana da ikon yin aiki biyu, wato ban da nuna hali kamar na EPROM na yau da kullun, yana da shigar da rubutu. A gefe guda, tsarin yin rikodi da goge bayanai a cikin sabon ƙwaƙwalwar Flash ɗin ana samar da su a madadin, yayin da a cikin al'amuran EPROM na al'ada daban daban ne daban kuma daban.

Dangane da wannan, yana da mahimmanci a ambaci cewa wanda ya ƙirƙiri membobin Flash Flash na EPROM ya ɗauki matakan ƙirar da ake buƙata, ta yadda ba zai yiwu mu ɓata wasu muhimman bayanai ba da gangan ba. Don haka, wannan nau'in ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya yana da wasu umarni da aka ƙaddara ta inda ake kafa bayanan sharewa da ayyukan shirye -shirye.

Game da wannan ɓangaren na ƙarshe, a cikin manyan umarni za mu iya ambaton waɗannan: Karatu, Sake saitawa, Zaɓin Kai, Byte, Share guntu da Share sashe. A nasu ɓangaren, biyun farko suna da alhakin shirya ƙwaƙwalwa don aiwatar da karatun na gaba, yayin da umurnin da ake kira "Zaɓin Kai" yana da alhakin gano lambar maƙerin da nau'in na'urar.

Bugu da ƙari, ana amfani da umarnin Byte don saka sabon shirin a cikin ƙwaƙwalwar EPROM, yayin da ake amfani da "Goge guntu" kai tsaye don fara aikin share bayanan. A ƙarshe, ta hanyar umurnin «Share» za mu iya share abubuwan da aka rubuta a wasu yankuna na ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya.

Labarin nishadi

Haihuwar ƙwaƙwalwar EPROM ta kasance saboda buƙatar warware matsalar shirye -shiryen da ke cikin wanda ya gabace ta, ƙwaƙwalwar PROM. Don haka, EPROM yana ba da damar gyara duk kuskuren da zai yiwu daga wannan tsari.

Ƙwaƙwalwar EPROM tana da taga ma'adini mai haske, wanda ke ba da damar samun hasken ultraviolet yayin goge abun ciki. Koyaya, a ƙarƙashin yanayin al'ada, wannan taga yakamata ta kasance a rufe don hana tasirin hasken halitta daga goge bayanan da ke cikin EPROM.

Koyaya, kodayake muna yin taka tsantsan don kada a goge bayanan da ke cikin memba na EPROM, gaskiyar ita ce a tsawon lokaci ana canza ta da bege. Abin farin, wannan baya faruwa sai bayan shekaru da yawa na amfani da ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya.

Tsaya

Don fahimta mafi kyau menene membobin EPROM, daya daga cikin bangarorin farko da yakamata mu yi la’akari da shi shine cewa wani nau'in nau'in tashin hankali ne, mai shirye-shirye da gogewa. Ta wannan hanyar, ana ɗaukar EPROM mafi amfani fiye da ƙwaƙwalwar PROM.

Fasali da aiki

Bugu da ƙari, yana da mahimmanci a tuna cewa irin wannan ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya ana iya sake amfani da ita; ta yadda za mu iya goge abin da ke ciki kuma mu sake yin rikodi ko shirin sabon. Dangane da wannan, wannan yana yiwuwa ta hanyar amfani da hasken ultraviolet, wanda ke wucewa ta taga madaidaiciyar madaidaiciya wacce ke cikin babban tsarin ƙwaƙwalwar da aka sani da ROM.

Dangane da wannan ɓangaren na ƙarshe, yana da mahimmanci a ambaci cewa da zarar mun goge abin da ke cikin membobin EPROM kuma mun sake tsara shi, yana shirye don sake amfani da shi. Koyaya, zai yi aiki ne kawai azaman abin karantawa kawai; ko dai a asalin wurinsa ko a wani tsarin da ake bukata.

A gefe guda, muna da cewa memba na EPROM yana inganta ayyukan PROM, kamar yadda EEPROM ya wuce nata. Musamman dangane da damar goge ƙwaƙwalwa, gami da shirye -shiryen BIOS.

Goge ƙwaƙwalwa

Bugu da kari, dole ne mu ambaci cewa tsarin share bayanai da sake tsara tsarin memba na EPROM yana da jinkiri da rikitarwa. Kazalika, wannan yana buƙatar cire ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwar da'irar don samun damar canza abubuwan da ke ciki; Bugu da ƙari, ba ya ƙyale kawar da shi ta wani ɓangare.

ƙarshe

A takaice, don amsa tambayarmu game da menene membobin EPROM, yana da kyau a ɗauka cewa yana da shirye-shirye kuma ana iya share ƙwaƙwalwar karatu kawai. Ta wannan hanyar, muna da cewa babban halayensa shine cewa za a iya goge abin da ke ciki ta amfani da hasken ultraviolet, bayan haka za mu iya sake tsara shi ta hanyar motsawar lantarki.


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