Nau'in ƙwayoyin cuta na kwamfuta masu cutarwa ga tsarin

Masana harkar tsaro na yanar gizo sun bayyana cewa kwayar cutar kwamfuta nau'in malware ce, da kuma tsutsotsi, waɗanda ke iya ninka kansu da nufin lalata tsarin da yawa. A cikin wannan labarin, muna bayyana kwatancen nau'in ƙwayoyin cuta na kwamfuta mai cutarwa ga tsarin. Muna fata yana da amfani.

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Nau'in ƙwayoyin cuta na kwamfuta

Nau'in ƙwayoyin cuta na kwamfuta sune shirye -shiryen ƙetare waɗanda ke lalata ko gyara fayiloli ko wasu tsarin. Kwayoyin ƙwayoyin cuta sun yi aiki kamar haka: yana sanya ɓataccen lambar sa a cikin ɓangaren fayil ɗin, don haka, daga wannan lokacin, fayil ɗin, wanda ya zama mai aiwatarwa, ya kasance a matsayin mai ɗaukar wannan ƙwayar kuma don haka, mai kwafin wannan.

Na daban nau'in ƙwayoyin cuta na kwamfuta wanda zai iya gyara ko lalata tsarin:

malware

Kalmar kwamfuta ce ta fasaha wacce ke fitowa daga haɗin kalmomin: software mara kyau ko software mara kyau. Wadannan nau'in ƙwayoyin cuta na kwamfuta, an yi nufin shiga ciki da lalata komputa ko fayiloli ba tare da izini daga mai shi ba.

Don haka, malware an ƙirƙira shi musamman don nufin duk wata barazanar kwamfuta. A cikin waɗannan nau'in ƙwayoyin cuta na kwamfuta, akwai ƙarin cikakkun bayanai dalla -dalla gwargwadon kowace barazana kamar tsutsotsi, Trojans, ƙwayoyin kwamfuta, adware, kayan leken asiri ko fansa.

Kwayar cutar kwamfuta

Wannan rukunin malware ne, wanda aikinsa shine ya shafi ingantaccen aikin tsarin. Hanyar kamuwa da cuta ta hanyar lambar ɓarna, kuma sifa ta musamman ita ce tana buƙatar sa hannun mai amfani da tsarin don yin aiki, kuma a wannan lokacin, sarrafawa don lalata komputa ta hanyar yaduwa.

Akwai daban-daban nau'in ƙwayoyin cuta na kwamfuta, waɗanda aka yi don kawai su ɓata, amma akwai wasu waɗanda ke lalata kwamfutar sosai, suna kawar da fayilolin da ke da mahimmanci ga tsarin da aikinta.

Gabaɗaya, ba sa son ɓoyewa, amma a maimakon haka suna kama da fayilolin aiwatarwa, misali: Windows .exe.

Tsutsar Kwamfuta

Wannan wani nau'in kwayar cutar kwamfuta ce mafi yawan ƙwayoyin cuta, kuma banbanci da ƙwayoyin cuta shine ba lallai bane ga mai amfani ko kuma kowane fayil ya canza don cutar da kwamfutar. Kamar kwayar cutar, tana iya yin maimaitawa da yaduwa.

Lokacin shigar da kwamfuta, tsutsa tana ƙoƙarin samun adireshin wasu kwamfutoci ta hanyar jerin lambobin sadarwa, don aika kwafi da cutar da su.

Za su iya yin ayyukan kwamfuta na yau da kullun da wuce gona da iri, kuma yana sa kwamfutarka aika saƙonni ba tare da izini ba ta hanyar imel ko kowace hanyar sadarwar zamantakewa.

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Trojan

Trojan yana ƙoƙarin kada a kula da shi yayin da yake shiga kwamfutar don ɗaukar matakai don ƙoƙarin buɗe tsarin ga wasu shirye -shiryen ɓarna waɗanda za su iya shiga cikin ta.

Ofaya daga cikin daidaituwa tsakanin azuzuwan malware daban -daban shine cewa suna ƙoƙarin shigar da tsarin kamar fayilolin doka ne. Wannan malware yana shiga kwamfutarka azaman shirin doka kuma yayin da yake ciki, yana yin sarari tsakanin tsarin tsaro don wasu fayilolin malware don shiga da cutar. Trojans ba za su iya yada kansu ba.

Kayan leken asiri

Ana iya shigar da waɗannan nau'ikan ƙwayoyin cuta na kwamfuta a kwamfutarka, suna aiki a asirce, suna ɓoye kansu har abada don kada a kunna kariyar ku.

Manufarta ita ce tattara dukkan bayanai game da mai amfani, ayyukan da aka aiwatar akan kwamfutar, abubuwan da ke cikin rumbun kwamfutarka, aikace -aikacen da shirye -shiryen da aka shigar da duk ayyukan da aka aiwatar akan intanet.

Adware

Wadannan nau'in ƙwayoyin cuta na kwamfutaWani nau'in shirin ne mai rikitarwa don rarrabasu, tunda bai shafi kwamfutar ba, amma yana da makasudin makasudin shigar da ita da koyar da tallace -tallace, yayin da yake kan intanet lokacin da ake gudanar da shirin.

Ana shigar da irin wannan software a cikin shirye -shiryen waɗanda daga baya suke yaɗa kyauta, kasancewa hanyar samun kuɗi don masu haɓakawa.

ransomware

Wadannan nau'in ƙwayoyin cuta na kwamfuta, shine ke da alhakin satar bayanai daga kwamfutar kuma yana neman fansa na kuɗi don sakin bayanan. Wannan yana ɗaya daga cikin ƙwayoyin cuta da ke ta ƙaruwa a cikin 'yan lokutan nan, wannan shine dalilin da yasa aka bada shawarar sabunta riga -kafi na dindindin.

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Sauran nau'ikan ƙwayoyin cuta na kwamfuta

Akwai wasu nau'ikan ko azuzuwan gwargwadon halayen su, mafi mahimmancin an bayyana su a ƙasa:

Mazaunan ƙwayoyin cuta

Wannan nau'in ƙwayar cuta ta kwamfuta tana ɓoyewa a cikin ƙwaƙwalwar RAM kuma daga can, suna sarrafa don katse duk ayyukan da ake aiwatarwa a cikin tsarin, suna lalata duk shirye -shirye ko aikace -aikacen da aka aiwatar.

Cutar kai tsaye

Babban maƙasudin wannan ƙwayar cuta ita ce ta ninka kanta kuma idan ta isa yanayin da ya dace, tana gudanar da kunna kanta kuma tana zuwa shirye -shirye da aikace -aikace don cutar da su.

Overwrite virus

Waɗannan ƙwayoyin ƙwayoyin cuta suna da keɓantaccen fayil ɗin da ke kamuwa, tunda sun rubuta a cikin abin da ke ciki, suna sarrafa su lalata shi gaba ɗaya.

Boot virus

Wadannan nau'in ƙwayoyin cuta na kwamfutaBa sa cutar da fayiloli ko shirye -shirye, amma a maimakon rumbun kwamfutarka. Da farko suna cutar da yankin taya na na'urorin ajiya ko rumbun kwamfutoci.

Lokacin da kwamfutar ta fara da na’urar ajiya, ƙwayar taya za ta cutar da wannan faifan. Wannan kwayar cutar ba ta cutar da kwamfutar muddin ba ta yi boot ba, don haka hanya mafi kyau ita ce kare dukkan na’urorin ajiya daga rubutu

Littafin adireshi

Wannan ƙwayar cuta tana canza adireshin da ke nuna inda aka adana fayiloli ko shirye -shirye. Ta wannan hanyar, lokacin da shirin ke gudana, a zahiri kwayar cutar tana gudana. Kuma lokacin da aka haifar da kamuwa da cuta, ba shi yiwuwa a same shi, ƙasa da haka, don amfani da manyan fayilolin.

Kwayoyin cuta na polymorphic

Shin wasu nau'in ƙwayoyin cuta na kwamfuta cewa duk lokacin da suka kamu da cutar, ana rikodin su daban, don haka suna haɓaka adadin kwafi, yana hana riga -kafi gano su.

Ƙwayoyin ƙwayoyin cuta

Waɗannan suna yin sarkar kamuwa da cuta, babban aikin su shine cutar da kowane bangare, fayil ko shirin.

Fayil fayil

Wannan ƙwayar cuta tana cutar da shirye -shiryen aiwatarwa ko manyan fayiloli. Lokacin aiwatar da shirin da ya ƙunshi shi, zai ci gaba da aiki.

Kwayar FAT

Wannan ƙwayar cuta tana kai hari ga muhimman abubuwa a cikin kwamfutar, ta dakatar da ƙofar wasu fannoni na faifai, inda zai yiwu a adana manyan fayilolin ko waɗanda ke cikin mawuyacin yanayi don ingantaccen aikin kwamfutar.

Idan kuna son wannan bayanin, muna gayyatar ku don yin bitar waɗannan hanyoyin haɗin gwiwa:

Ire -iren Motoci a cikin Informatics da Ayyukan sa

Manajan Aiki da aikinsa a cikin Windows


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