Ma Microcomputer: Tanthauzo, Mbiri, ndi Zambiri

Makompyuta-2

Ma Microcomputer ndi luso laukadaulo, chifukwa amathandizira kuti zidziwitso zisungidwe m'njira yosavuta komanso yosavuta. Munkhaniyi muphunzira chilichonse chokhudzana ndi iwo, kuyambira pomwe adayamba ma microcomputer apano.

Makompyuta

Ma Microcomputer, omwe amatchedwanso ma microcomputer kapena ma microcomputer, ndi makompyuta omwe ali ndi microprocessor ngati central processing unit, ndipo amakonzedwa kuti akwaniritse ntchito zina. Zinthu monga zovuta za dongosololi, mphamvu, magwiridwe antchito, kukhazikika, kusinthasintha komanso mtengo wazida, pakati pa zina, zimadalira microprocessor.

Kwenikweni, ma microcomputer amapanga dongosolo lathunthu logwiritsa ntchito payokha, lomwe limakhala, kuphatikiza pa microprocessor, zokumbukira komanso zingapo zophatikizira zidziwitso ndi zotulutsa.

Pomaliza, ndikofunikira kufotokozera kuti ngakhale ma microcomputer nthawi zambiri amasokonezedwa ndi makompyuta, sizofanana. Zitha kunenedwa kuti zomalizazi ndi gawo la gulu lakale.

Ngati mukufuna kudziwa zambiri za izi, ndikukupemphani kuti muwerenge nkhaniyi pa mitundu yamakompyuta zomwe zilipo lero.

Chiyambi

Ma Microcomputer adachokera pakufunika kobweretsa makompyuta ang'onoang'ono kunyumba ndi mabizinesi. Zomwe zitha kuphatikizidwa atapanga microprocessors ku 1971.

Chojambula choyamba chodziwika bwino cha microcomputer, ngakhale chinali chopanda microprocessor, koma chiwonetsero chazing'ono, chidapezeka mu 1973. Chidapangidwa ndikupanga ndi Xerox Research Center ndipo chimatchedwa Alto. Ntchitoyi sinachite bwino chifukwa chaukadaulo womwe umafunikira, koma sunapezeke panthawiyo.

Kutsatira mtunduwu, njira zina zidatulukira m'manja mwa makampani ena, kuphatikiza Apple. Komabe, munali mu 1975 pomwe microcomputer yoyamba yamalonda idagulitsidwa. Anali Altair 8800, a kampani ya MITS. Ngakhale idasowa kiyibodi, kuwunika, kukumbukira kosatha, ndi mapulogalamu, idayamba kugunda. Inali ndi masiwichi ndi magetsi.

Makompyuta-3

Pambuyo pake, mu 1981, IBM idatulutsa kompyuta yoyamba, yotchedwa IBM-PC, yomwe idakhazikitsidwa ndi Intel's 8080 microprocessor. Izi zidawonetsa kuyambika kwa nyengo yatsopano yamakompyuta, popeza kuchokera pamenepo mitundu yayikulu kwambiri yama microcomputer idayamba kutuluka, yolimbikitsidwa ndi makampani monga Compaq, Olivetti, Hewlett - Packard, pakati pa ena.

Chisinthiko

Chiyambireni kuwonekera kwa Alto, yomwe inali ndi sewero la 875-scanning, disk ya 2,5 MB ndi mawonekedwe omwe ali ndi netiweki ya 3 Mbits / s Ethernet, ukadaulowu wasintha, nthawi zonse poganizira zabwino za mitundu iliyonse yapitayi.

Kuchokera pamalingaliro awa, titha kunena kuti kuwonjezeka kwama microcomputer makamaka chifukwa choti ukadaulo wawo wapita patsogolo kwambiri, poyerekeza ndi wama minicomputer komanso ma supercomputer. Kapangidwe kake ndi kapangidwe kake, kuphatikiza ma microprocessor amphamvu kwambiri, zotchingira mwachangu komanso zokhoza kukumbukira ndikusunga, zimatheka munthawi yochepa. Mwanjira imeneyi amagula nthawi yamitundu ina yamakompyuta.

Pomaliza, ziyenera kufotokozedwa kuti chifukwa cha kupita patsogolo kwamatekinoloje, mawu oti microcomputer sakugwiritsidwanso ntchito, popeza masiku ano makampani ambiri opanga zinthu akuphatikiza ma microprocessors pafupifupi mtundu uliwonse wamakompyuta.

Zida

Ma Microcomputer ndi mtundu wamakompyuta omwe ali ndi izi:

  • Chigawo chake chapakati ndi microprocessor, chomwe sichoposa dera lophatikizika.
  • Zomangamanga zake ndizachikale, zomangidwa pakuwongolera kayendedwe ka ntchito ndi chilankhulo cha njira.
  • Imakhala ndiukadaulo womangidwa, womwe umalola kulumikizana kwa zida zake.
  • Chifukwa cha kapangidwe kake kakang'ono, ndikosavuta kunyamula ndikusuntha.

Kodi ma microcomputer amagwira ntchito bwanji?

Ma Microcomputer amatha kuchita zinthu, kutulutsa, kuwerengera ndi kulingalira, kudzera munjira zotsatirazi:

  • Kulandila zomwe ziyenera kukonzedwa.
  • Kukhazikitsidwa kwa malamulo omwe adakonzedwa kuti athe kukonza zambiri.
  • Kusunga chidziwitso, isanachitike komanso itasintha.
  • Kuwonetsera kwa zotsatira zakukonza deta.

Mwanjira ina, ma microcomputer amagwiritsa ntchito mtundu wamalangizo omwe amawalola, powasankha, kuti achite zofunikira zazing'ono kuti athe kuyankha zopempha za ogwiritsa ntchito.

Chifukwa chake, mawonekedwe amachitidwe amaphatikizira nambala yantchito, kudzera momwe imawonetsera kulumikizana kwa operand iliyonse, ndiye kuti, imafotokozera pang'ono malangizo, azinthu zosiyanasiyana zomwe zimapanga.

Kwa iwo, ma micro-opareshoni ndi magwiridwe antchito a microprocessor, omwe amayang'anira kukonzanso malangizo ndikuwatsata kwa pulogalamu.

Pogwiritsa ntchito nthawi, microcomputer imatha kuyang'anira zochitika za netiweki yolumikizana yolumikizana ndi zinthu zadongosolo.

Pomaliza, ndikofunikira kufotokozera tanthauzo la kusanthula. Kusintha ndi njira yomwe kumasuliridwa kwa malangizo, kuti muwone momwe ntchitoyi ikuyenera kuchitidwira komanso njira yopezera operekera malamulo awa.

Zipangizo zamagetsi zamagetsi

Zida zamagetsi zimaimira zomwe zimapangidwa ndi ma microcomputer, ndiye kuti, ndi gawo logwirika. Amapangidwa ndi zida zamagetsi zamagetsi komanso zamagetsi, ma circuits, zingwe, ndi zinthu zina zotumphukira zomwe zimapangitsa kuti zida zogwirira ntchito zitheke.

Pankhani yama microcomputer, imatha kutanthauza chinthu chimodzi kapena zida zingapo zingapo.

Mwambiri, kuti hardware ikwaniritse ntchito yake, pamafunika kupezeka kwa zinthu zotsatirazi:

Zida zolowetsa

Ndiwo mayunitsi omwe wogwiritsa ntchito amalowetsa zidziwitso mu microcomputer, kaya ndi mawu, mawu, zithunzi kapena makanema. Zina mwazo ndi: kiyibodi, mbewa, maikolofoni, kamera ya kanema, mapulogalamu ozindikira mawu, owerenga owerenga, ndi zina zambiri.

Nazi zina mwazipangizo zazikulu zopangira microcomputer:

  • Kiyibodi: Ndi chida cholowetsera chidziwitso pakuchita bwino. Imalola kulumikizana pakati pa wogwiritsa ntchito ndi microcomputer, kudzera pakulowetsa zomwe zisandulike kukhala mitundu yodziwika.
  • Mbewa: Kugawana kumagwira ntchito ndi kiyibodi, koma kumangogwira ntchito zogwirizana ndikudina kamodzi kapena kawiri. Sinthani kusunthika kwakuthupi kukhala kusuntha pazenera.
  • Maikolofoni: Nthawi zambiri, ndi chida chophatikizidwa ndi ma microcomputer ambiri, omwe ntchito yawo ndikulola kulowetsa kwamawu.
  • Kamera ya kanema: Yothandiza polowetsa zidziwitso ngati zithunzi ndi makanema, koma osathandiza pamapulogalamu ambiri oyendetsedwa ndi ma microcomputer.
  • Mapulogalamu ozindikiritsa mawu: Amakhala ndi udindo wosintha mawu oyankhulidwa kukhala ma digito omwe amatha kumasuliridwa ndikumasuliridwa ndi ma microcomputer.
  • Pensulo yamagetsi: Amapanga cholozera chamagetsi chomwe wogwiritsa ntchito amasintha zenera. Amagwiritsidwa ntchito pamanja ndipo amagwiritsa ntchito masensa omwe amatumiza ma microcomputer nthawi iliyonse mukaunika kuwala.
  • Optical reader: Ndi ofanana ndi cholembera, koma ntchito yake yayikulu ndikuwerenga ma barcode kuti muzindikire zomwe akupanga.
  • CD-ROM: Ndi chida cholowetsera, chomwe chimasunga mafayilo ama kompyuta okhaokha. Sipezeka muma microcomputer onse, koma imapezeka m'makompyuta apakompyuta.
  • Sikana: Ndichida chomwe chimatha kulumikizana ndi makompyuta apakompyuta makamaka. Sungani zinthu zosindikizidwa kuti zisungidwe pa microcomputer.

Zida zotulutsa

Awa ndi mayunitsi omwe ma microcomputer amalumikizitsa zotsatira zomwe zapezeka, atakonza ndikusintha zidziwitsozo. Mu ma microcomputer omwe amapezeka kwambiri ndimasewera ndi ma speaker.

  • Kuwunika: Ndilo gawo lofala kwambiri lazidziwitso. Zimakhala ndi chinsalu pomwe deta ndi malangizo omwe alowa mu microcomputer amawonetsedwa. Kupyola momwemonso ndizotheka kuwona zilembo ndi zithunzi zomwe zimapezeka pambuyo pakusintha kwa data.
  • Printer: Sizingalumikizidwe ndi mitundu yonse yama microcomputer, koma ndi chimodzi mwazida zogwiritsa ntchito kwambiri zomwe zimatulutsa chidziwitso. Imatulutsa makamaka, monga mtundu, mtundu uliwonse wazidziwitso zomwe zimasungidwa mu microcomputer.
  • Modem: Amagwiritsa ntchito kulumikiza makompyuta awiri, m'njira yoti athe kusinthana deta pakati pawo. Momwemonso, imalola kuti deta ifalitsidwe kudzera patelefoni.
  • Makanema omvera: Nthawi zambiri, amaimira makhadi ophatikizika omwe amakweza mawu omwe ali muzinthu zama media.
  • Wokamba nkhani: Amakulolani kuti muyankhe kudzera potulutsa mawu.

Pankhaniyi, ndikofunikira kuwunikira kuti pankhani yama touch screen omwe amapezeka muma microcomputer apano, imagwira ntchito ngati cholowetsera komanso chotulutsa nthawi yomweyo. Mofananamo, zida zoyankhulirana, zomwe zimalumikiza microcomputer imodzi ndi ina, zimakhala ndi ntchito ziwiri.

Central processing unit

Limatanthawuza microprocessor kapena ubongo wa microcomputer, momwe ntchito zowerengera ndi kuwerengera masamu zimachitikira, zopangira kutanthauzira ndikukhazikitsa malangizo omwe alandila.

Microprocessor imapangidwa ndi ma processor a masamu, memory cache ndi phukusi, ndipo ili mkati mwa bolodi la ma microcomputer. Kuti mudziwe zambiri zakomwe ili, mutha kuwona nkhaniyi pa zinthu mavabodi kuchokera pa kompyuta.

Wogwiritsira ntchito ndiye gawo lomveka bwino la microprocessor. Ili ndi udindo pakuwerengera masamu, kupanga zojambula, kupanga zilembo zamakalata komanso kuphatikiza kwa zithunzi ndi zithunzi, pamodzi ndi zolembetsa, gawo loyang'anira, kukumbukira ndi bus ya data.

Kukumbukira kwa cache ndiko kukumbukira mwachangu komwe kumafupikitsa nthawi yoyankha, yokhudzana ndi kupeza zidziwitso zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pafupipafupi, osagwiritsa ntchito RAM.

Encapsulation ndi gawo lakunja lomwe limateteza microprocessor, nthawi yomweyo yomwe imalola kulumikizana ndi zolumikizira zakunja.

Ma Microprocessors amakhudzana ndi zolembetsa, zomwe ndi malo osungira kwakanthawi omwe amakhala ndi chidziwitso. Ayeneranso kutsatira kutsatira malangizowo komanso zotsatira zakukwaniritsidwa kwa malangizowo.

Pomaliza, ma microcomputer amaphatikiza basi yamkati kapena netiweki yolumikizirana, yomwe imatha kulumikiza zinthu zamkati ndi kunja.

Zida zokumbukira ndi kusunga

Gawo lokumbukira limayang'anira kusungitsa malangizo ndi zidziwitso zomwe zalandilidwa kuti, pambuyo pake, zizitengedwa kuchokera pamenepo ndi purosesa. Deta iyenera kukhala mu code ya binary. Chikumbutso chimagawidwa mu kukumbukira kosavuta (RAM) ndi kukumbukira kokha (ROM).

RAM imayimira kukumbukira kwamkati, yogawika kukumbukira kukumbukira ndi kusunga kukumbukira. Mmenemo, ndizotheka kupeza liwu kapena mamvekedwe mwachangu komanso molunjika, osaganizira za mabatani omwe amasungidwa kale kapena pambuyo pake.

Mbali yake, ROM ili ndi makina oyambira kapena opangira ma microcomputer. Mmenemo, ma microprograms omwe ali ndi malangizo ovutawo amasungidwa, komanso bitmap yofananira ndi aliyense wa otchulidwa.

Poterepa, ndikofunikira kudziwa kuti, kuchokera pakuwona, kukumbukira ndi kusungika ndi malingaliro awiri osiyana. Microcomputer ikazimitsidwa, mapulogalamu ndi zomwe zidasungidwa mkumbukiro zimatayika, pomwe zomwe zilipo zosungidwa zimasungidwa.

Ma drive osungira amaphatikizira ma hard drive, ma CD-ROM, ma DVD, ma drive oyendetsa, ndi ma drive oyendetsa, pakati pa ena.

  • Hard disk: Ndi maginito disk osasunthika, ndiye kuti ali mkati mwa unit. Ili mu ma microcomputer ambiri ndipo ili ndi kuthekera kwakukulu kosunga zidziwitso.
  • Galimoto yoyenda: Imangotchedwa CD, ndichosungira ndi kufalitsa kwa wailesi, mapulogalamu ndi mtundu wina uliwonse wa data. Chidziwitsocho chimasungidwa pogwiritsa ntchito makina opangidwa ndi laser pa master disc, yomwe imapangidwa kuchokera pakupanga makope angapo. Zimapangidwa m'mafakitale.
  • CD-ROM: Ndi diski yokhayo yowerengera, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti zomwe zidasungidwa sizingasinthidwe kapena kuzimitsa zitasungidwa. Mosiyana ndi ma CD, zomwe zalembedwazo zajambulidwa ngati fakitale yakale.
  • DVD: Amakhala ndi nzeru zofanana ndi ma CD, koma zidziwitsozo zitha kujambulidwa mbali zonse za DVD. Nthawi zambiri, mumafunikira wosewera wapadera kuti muwerenge. Komabe, zitsanzo zaposachedwa kwambiri pamsika zimawerenga ma CD ndi ma DVD chimodzimodzi.

Mitundu

Mwambiri ndipo monga chinthu chofunikira muukadaulo, titha kuyankhula za mitundu iwiri ya ma microcomputer: makompyuta apakompyuta ndi ma laputopu. Zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito, mofanana, pakati pa anthu ndi makampani.

  • Makompyuta apakompyuta: Chifukwa chakukula kwake amatha kuyika patebulo la desiki, koma mawonekedwe omwewo amalepheretsa kuti azitha kunyamula. Amapangidwa ndimayendedwe osungira ndi osungira, mayunitsi, komanso kiyibodi.
  • Malaputopu: Chifukwa cha kuwala kwawo komanso mawonekedwe ake, amatha kusunthidwa mosavuta kuchoka kumalo ena kupita kwina. Izi zikuphatikiza ma laputopu, zolembera, othandizira ma digito (PDAs), mafoni am'manja ndi ena. Chikhalidwe chake chachikulu ndikuthamanga pakupanga deta.

Ma microcomputer apano

Monga tanenera kale, pali mitundu ingapo yama microcomputer, iliyonse yomwe ili ndi mawonekedwe omveka bwino kutengera momwe imathandizira. Kuti mupitirize; tsatanetsatane:

Makompyuta-1

  • Makompyuta apakompyuta: Ndiwo mtundu wama microcomputer omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri. Amatha kuchita ntchito zodziwika bwino pamakompyuta, monga kusakatula pa intaneti, zolemba ndi kusintha ntchito, mwazinthu zina zambiri zothandiza. Amathandizira mitundu yazowonjezera, monga nyanga ndi ma webukamu.
  • Malaputopu: Chiyambireni mu 1981, amapanga kusintha kwamakompyuta. Zina mwazinthu zake, mawonekedwe, kiyibodi, purosesa, hard disk, purosesa, ndi zina. Amatha kugwira ntchito yofananira ndi makompyuta apakompyuta, koma kukula kwake pang'ono ndi mtengo wake amatanthauza kuti ali ndi zabwino kuposa iwo.
  • Malaputopu: Ali ndi chinsalu chathyathyathya ndipo amayendetsedwa ndi batri. Kukula kwake kumatanthauzira kunyamula kwake.
  • Zolemba m'mabuku: Ntchito yake yayikulu ndikuzindikira ntchito zosavuta. Alibe ma CD kapena ma DVD. Ndiotsika mtengo poyerekeza ndi makompyuta, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti azigulitsa kwambiri. Ndi opepuka kuposa ma laptops.
  • Mapiritsi: Amalowetsa malaputopu ndi zolembera pogwiritsira ntchito. Kuwonekera kwake kumalola wogwiritsa ntchito kuyanjana ndi zomwe zili mkatimo. Alibe ma keyboards kapena mbewa.
  • Othandizira Pama digito (PDAs): Amakhala ngati okonza mthumba. Ali ndi ntchito za agenda, notebook, ma spreadsheets, pakati pa ena. Amalola kulowetsa deta kudzera pazida zapadera. Kuphatikiza apo, ali ndi zida zothandizirana.
  • Mafoni am'manja: Ndi ma microcomputer omwe amatha kutumiza ndikulandila mafoni ndi mauthenga, kuphatikiza kulumikizana ndi intaneti kudzera pa WiFi kapena mafoni. Amagawana ntchito zambiri zomwe zimapezeka pamakompyuta amunthu, monga kuwongolera maimelo ndikusamalira ma multimedia.

Ma Microcomputer amtsogolo

Ngakhale kupita patsogolo kwakanthawi kwamakompyuta ndi ukadaulo, zoyambira za hardware ndi mapulogalamu zimangokhala zosasinthika pakapita nthawi. Komabe, ma microcomputer amalonjeza kuti azikhala patsogolo, kuwongolera kasamalidwe ka zandalama, ajenda, olumikizana nawo, makalendala, ndi zochitika zina zatsiku ndi tsiku. Momwemonso, apitilizabe kupezeka m'malo opanga ukadaulo, monga nzeru zopangira, maloboti, ndi chilichonse chokhudzana ndi multimedia.

Ma microcomputer omwe akuyembekezeredwa kukhala ndi gawo labwino m'miyoyo yathu yamtsogolo mosakayikira adzakhala ndi kuthekera kwakukulu ndi mphamvu, komanso kupereka magwiridwe antchito ambiri. Pakati pawo pali zotsatirazi:

  • Malaputopu a Zophatikiza: Amatchedwanso mapiritsi a haibridi, amagwira ntchito ngati mapiritsi ndi makompyuta nthawi yomweyo, chifukwa ali ndi kiyibodi komanso zenera logwira. Monga mtengo wowonjezera, chinsalucho ndi chokulirapo ndipo chimaphatikizapo cholembera chama digito.
  • Matelefoni olumikizidwa ndi mawayilesi: Chiyambireni kuwonekera kwa mafoni, magwiridwe antchito awo akuchulukirachulukira. Ndi malingaliro awa akuyembekezeredwa kuti asinthe kanema wawayilesi kukhala kompyutayi, kudzera pa chingwe cholumikizira. Ngakhale zoyesayesa zomwe zachitika pankhaniyi, pempholi silinathe. Komabe, zikuyembekezeka kuti mtsogolomo msika wamafoni apamwamba azikula ndikutsatira njira yatsopanoyi yopangira ukadaulo, popanga mapulogalamu apadziko lonse lapansi.
  • Makompyuta amthumba: Ngakhale lingaliro lilipo kale, makompyuta awa akuyembekezeka kuchepetsa kapangidwe kake kuti kakhale kofanana ndi pendrive. Lingaliro lalikulu pamalingaliro awa ndikuti polumikiza kachipangizo kakang'ono pazenera, imatha kugwira ntchito ngati kompyuta.
  • Makompyuta a Holographic: Ndi ntchito yofuna kutchuka. Komabe, pakadali pano makampani ena ndi mayunivesite akupanga mapulojekiti omwe angalole kusintha zisoti zankhondo zomwe zilipo kale kuti zizisanduke zida za holographic, ndikuyika ukadaulowo m'manja mwa ogwiritsa ntchito.
  • Makompyuta a Quantum: Ntchito yamtsogolo ikuphatikizapo kukulitsa ukadaulo uwu, womwe umalola kuti kusungidwa kwa kuchuluka kwakanthawi kochepa. Masiku ano, gawo lina lamaganizidwewa limagwiritsidwa ntchito munzeru zopangira, pomwe deta imagwiritsidwa ntchito powerengera kovuta kwambiri.
  • Makompyuta ambirimbiri: Pazaka zambiri zopinga zomwe zimasiyanitsa mitundu yonse yamakompyuta omwe adalipo zidzaswedwa, mpaka kuzunguliridwa ndi zinthu zanzeru zomwe zimagwira ntchito ngati makompyuta, zomwe zikuwongolera zokolola komanso zotheka kukwaniritsa zosowa zawo.

Zopangira deta

Mawonekedwe akulu omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi ma microcomputer ndi ma bits, byte, ndi otchulidwa.

A pang'ono ndi gawo laling'ono kwambiri lazidziwitso lomwe microcomputer ili nalo, pomwe zambiri zimapangidwa. Kugawidwa kwa ma bits angapo kumapereka chiwonetsero chazidziwitso.

Ngakhale ma byte ndi gawo lothandiza, momwe kukumbukira kosasinthika ndi kusungika kosatha kwama microcomputer kumayesedwa. Byte ili ndi ma bits 8, ndipo imagwiritsidwa ntchito kuyimira mitundu yonse yazidziwitso, kuphatikiza manambala 0 mpaka 9 komanso zilembo.

Mwambiri, kapangidwe ka ma microcomputer amawathandiza kuti amvetsetse chilankhulo cha mabayiti. Mwanjira imeneyi, mutha kuyeza zambiri kuchokera kuma kilobytes, megabytes, ndi gigabytes.

Kwa mbali yake, chilembo ndi chilembo, nambala, zopumira, chizindikiro kapena chizindikiritso, zomwe sizimawoneka pazenera nthawi zonse kapena papepala, zomwe zimasungidwa ndikusungidwa pakompyuta.

Pomaliza, kuti timvetsetse bwino lingaliro la ma bits ndi ma byte, ndikofunikira kunena kuti pang'ono ndiye gawo lofunikira lamachitidwe a binary, omwe ali ndi mfundo ziwiri zokha (0 ndi 1). Pomwe dongosolo la decimal lili ndi manambala khumi (kuyambira 0 mpaka 9) ndi hexadecimal, zilembo 16 zomwe zimachokera pa 0 mpaka 9 komanso kuchokera pa chilembo A mpaka F.

pozindikira

Poganizira chilichonse chokhudza tanthauzo, gwero, chisinthiko, mawonekedwe ake, ndi zina mwa ma microcomputer, malingaliro otsatirawa akwaniritsidwa:

  • Chigawo chapakati chogwiritsira ntchito microcomputer iliyonse ndi microprocessor.
  • Ma Microcomputer amapangidwa ndi microprocessor, kukumbukira ndi mndandanda wazowonjezera zazidziwitso ndi zotulutsa.
  • Amachokera ku kufunika kopanga makompyuta ang'onoang'ono.
  • Kusintha kwa ma microcomputer ndichotsatira chotsatira cha kupita patsogolo kwaukadaulo.
  • Zomangamanga zake ndizachikale ndipo kapangidwe kake ndi kofanana.
  • Ma Microcomputers amatha kuwerengera masamu ndi zochitika zina, potsatira ndikutsatira malangizo.
  • Mtundu wamaphunzitsidwe akuwonetsa kulumikizidwa kwa gulu lililonse lomwe likupezeka pamalangizo.
  • Ma Microoperations ali ndi udindo wokhazikitsa malangizo ndikuwongolera dongosolo.
  • Kupyolera mu nthawi, microcomputer imatha kugwirizanitsa zochitika za basi yamkati.
  • Kusintha ndi njira yomwe kumasulira kumasulira.
  • Ma hardwarewa amapangidwa ndi zida zolowetsera ndi zotulutsira, gawo loyang'anira, kukumbukira ndi zida zosungira.
  • Zipangizo zazikulu zopangira chidziwitso ndi izi: kiyibodi, mbewa, kamera ya kanema, owerenga owonera, maikolofoni, pakati pa ena.
  • Zina mwazigawo zazikuluzikulu ndi izi: chosindikizira, makina amawu, modemu.
  • Central processing unit ili ndi udindo wogwira bwino ntchito komanso masamu, monga kutanthauzira ndikukhazikitsa malangizowo.
  • Wogwiritsira ntchito ndiye gawo lomveka bwino la microprocessor.
  • Chikumbutso cha cache ndichokumbukira mwachangu komwe kumafupikitsa nthawi yoyankha ya microcomputer.
  • Zolembera ndi malo osungira kwakanthawi omwe amakhala ndi chidziwitso.
  • Basi yamkati imagwirizanitsa zinthu zomwe zili mkati ndi kunja.
  • Memory imasunga deta ndi mapulogalamu kwakanthawi, zisanachitike ndi microprocessor.
  • RAM ndikumakumbukira kwamkati kwama microcomputer. Amakhala kukumbukira kukumbukira ndi kusunga kukumbukira.
  • Chikumbutso cha ROM chimakhala ndi makina opangira ma microcomputer, momwe ma microprograms omwe ali ndi malangizo ovuta amasungidwa.
  • Zipangizo zazikulu zosungira ndi izi: hard disk, optical drive, CD-ROM, DVD, ndi ena.
  • Ma Microcomputer amagawidwa m'makompyuta apakompyuta ndi makompyuta apakompyuta.
  • Makompyuta ang'onoang'ono amakono akuphatikiza ma desktops, ma laputopu, mapiritsi, ma laputopu, othandizira ma digito, ndi mafoni, pakati pa ena.
  • Ma microcomputer amtsogolo ndi awa: mapiritsi a haibridi, matelefoni olumikizidwa ndi mawayilesi, makompyuta amthumba, makompyuta a quantum, makompyuta a holographic, ndi zina zambiri.
  • Ma Microcomputer amagwiritsa ntchito ma bits, ma byte, ndi zilembo kuti asunge zidziwitso.

Zomwe zili m'nkhaniyi zikutsatira mfundo zathu za malamulo okonzekera. Kuti mufotokoze cholakwika dinani Apa.

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